Tomatoes produce abundant delicious fruits in a range of colours, shapes and sizes. They are easily grown in gardens, greenhouses or containers, and are appreciated by children and adults alike.
Common name Tomato
Latin name Solanum lycopersicum
Flowering time Summer
Planting time Spring to early summer
Height and spread Various
Aspect Sun or very light shade
Tomatoes are very easy to grow from seed. Alternatively, you can buy tomato plants from late spring from garden centres; these are a good option where you can't maintain the right conditions for germination and growing on. Grafting your own or buying grafted plants is another way to raise tomatoes.
Sow seed in late March to early April for outdoor crops, and in mid-February for growing in an unheated glasshouse. Seed can be expensive, but usually only a few plants are needed, and germination is usually good.
Fill 9cm (3½in) pot with seed or multipurpose compostLevel and firm the compost, then waterSow seeds on the compost surface, spacing them evenly, about a finger-width apart, to prevent damping off diseaseCover the seed with a layer of vermiculiteKeep at approximately 21°C (70°F), ideally in a heated propagator, until seedlings emergeTransfer seedlings to a heated greenhouse or, although less good, a sunny windowsill.
Seedlings emerge after about five days. Place them in the best-possible light (such as a greenhouse) and at a temperature of around 18°C (65°F) to prevent seedlings becoming long, thin and ‘leggy’. Leggy plants produce their first flowers high up on the plant leading to a bare, unproductive lower stem.
Seedlings should be large enough to prick out into separate pots of multipurpose compost two weeks or so after sowing:
Ideally, fill pots two days before pricking out, water well, and allow to warm up to room temperature to reduce the chance of the seedlings damping offHold seedlings by their cotyledons (seed leaves) to avoid damage to the delicate stemsMake a hole in the compost big enough to take the roots, and lightly firm the seedling in placeWater in with tepid waterReduce the temperature to 16ºC (60ºF) when plants reach 15cm (6in) high
Ideally, grow on in a glasshouse (or failing this, a well-lit windowsill), spacing plants so that their leaves never touch to avoid legginess. About a month after pricking out, the plants will be ready for planting into their final positions – this is indicated by the first flowers showing their yellow colour. The stress of being grown in the confines of a pot promotes flowers earlier than in less stressful positions, such as growing in the ground.
Whether you raise plants from seed or buy your plants, they can all be grown in the same way.
Plant outside in early summer. In unheated greenhouses, planting can take place in mid-spring. Set plants 40cm (16in) apart and water in well.
When planting into open ground, create a shallow circular reservoir around the plant to help retain water.
Watering and feeding
Roots should be kept moist but never waterlogged. Pots and grow-bags require frequent watering, particularly once plants become more established. Irregular watering can result in splitting and blossom-end rot, whereas over-watering can impair flavour.
Feeding isn’t essential for soil-grown plants, but those in bags or pots benefit from regular feeding, using tomato feed and following manufacturer’s instructions.
Tomato flowers self-pollinate readily. However, indoor plants benefit from being gently shaken to dislodge the pollen. Misting flowers with water can help fruit set.
Pick fruits as required, with the calyx (stalk) still attached. When cropping slows in early autumn, green fruits can be gathered and kept in a warm, dark place to ripen.
Pruning and training
Pruning and training depends on how your tomato cultivar naturally grows. The two main growth habits are: indeterminate (also called vine or cordon) or determinate (bush) tomatoes. When you buy seed or plants, check on the label to see what growth habit the plant will be.
Indeterminate (vine or cordon) tomatoes
Usually trained as a cordon – one central stem supported by a cane or string, 1½-2m (5-7ft) high. Left untrained, they produce unproductive vegetation
Pinch out the laterals (sideshoots) that appear between the leaf and main stem. Any greater than pencil-thickness should be cut off as they often don’t snap cleanly
Remove any competing leader stems (‘bull’ shoots) that appear
Remove the tip of the main stem two leaves above the fourth truss of fruits (for outdoor plants) or the sixth truss (for indoor plants), as subsequent fruits usually fail to ripen
There is evidence that removing some leaves above the ripening truss (which allows the fruit to be warmer during the day but cooler at night) can encourage slightly earlier ripening without negatively affecting cropping. Removing leaves below the ripening truss does not improve ripening but can help reduce the spread of diseases such as tomato leaf mould or tomato blight where these are a problem. Ensure plants are watered well before removing leaves
Flowers and fruit are borne on trusses (stalks bearing many flowers) that grow directly from the main stem
Determinate (bush) tomatoes
Tie plants loosely to a 1m (3ft) cane
Don’t remove side shoots as this will reduce cropping
Bush tomatoes produce compact plants with numerous short, sideshoots that terminate in a cluster of flowers
Other growth habits
Some tomatoes, especially beefsteak types, have a habit between that of an indeterminate (vine or cordon) and a determinate (bush) type. They produce vigorous lateral shoots that often terminate in a flowering truss and, so, these are not usually removed, except to curb unruly growth. Be careful when pinching out these shoots that you preserve laterals, which will flower and bear fruit.
There are hundreds of tomato cultivars available, these are just some of our favourites:
‘Ferline’: This is a beefsteak tomato with flavoursome, large red fruits and some resistance to tomato/potato blight. An indeterminate (vine or cordon) type.
‘Gardener’s Delight’ AGM: For small, flavoursome tomatoes, try this reliable and heavy cropping cultivar.
‘Olivade’ AGM: This determinate (bush) cultivar produces almost seedless, plum-shaped fruits with a good flavour, and has some disease resistance.
‘Tornado’ AGM: This determinate (bush) cultivar is hard to beat outdoors.
‘Tumbler’: A trailing tomato that can be grown in hanging baskets. A small determinate (bush) cultivar.